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化学竞赛

【习题】化学竞赛《无机化学试题集》张祖德编辑出版word版

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【习题】化学竞赛《无机化学试题集》张祖德编辑出版word版

 

  自2001年7月以来,《无机化学习题》在科大的大学一年级学生中使用已有五个年头了。许多刻苦钻研的学生几乎研究过该习题中的每一道题。我与TA也把该习题都做了参考答案。

  在五年的使用过程中,学生对该习题提了不少意见和建议,在这次再版中,我们接受了这些意见,改正了该习题中的一些错误,去掉了一些重复性的习题,增添了一些难度较大的习题。另外,我们把原先的Study Questions and Material Readings一书中的Study Questions拿出来,合并在该习题中,让学生使用起来更加方便。在该习题的Study Questions中,我们引入了参考文献reference papers的习题,这主要来自美国著名无机化学教授Cotton编写的Basic Inorganic Chemistry一书。培养大学一年级学生查阅和阅读参考文献,并能从文献中寻找正确答案的能力,对研究型大学的学生是一种非常必要的训练。学生做homework是巩固知识的一个重要手段,是锻炼科学思维的重要方式。学生千万不要盲目追求完成多少道习题,关键在于提高做习题的效益。

  怎样才能提高做习题的效率呢?这是大学一年级大学生常常思考的问题,也是许多学生在答疑时,常常问我的问题。在大学,根本不可能允许学生象中学那样用许多时间搞题海战术来巩固书本知识,学生必须根据大学授课的特点,调整自己的学习方法,抓住每门课目的纲,纲举目张,举一反三。

  无机化学习题的内容与无机化学授课内容一样,也分成三大部分:化学原理、化学理论与描述化学。不管做哪一类习题,首先要掌握好该部分的基础知识,必须做到复习课堂和书本知识在前。不能设想,写不出化学平衡表达式或能斯特方程表达式可以解出化学平衡和电化学题目。

  多年的教学经验告诉我,在解化学原理习题时,始终不要忘记物料平衡和电荷守恒,这是习题中不用告诉的永恒的条件;在解化学理论习题时,抓住元素在周期表的位置,并要善于比较,找出差别;在解描述化学习题时,抓住氧化—还原和酸碱两大反应类型,从理论上弄清楚元素各氧化态之间的性质差别,以及不同的结构会产生不同性质,即结构决定性质的道理。

  这次再版的《无机化学习题》参考的主要国外教材,除了2001年版列出的书目外, 还有以下几本主要参考书:

 Basic Inorganic Chemistry              (3rd edition) (F. Albert Cotton)

 Principles of Modern Chemistry         (5th edition) (David W. Oxtoby)

 Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry         (2nd edition) (Geoff Rayner Vanhan)

  感谢张翠平女士为本习题付出的辛勤劳动,感谢2004级种莎莎和龚晓李同学对以前《无机化学习题》和Study Questions and Material Readings的错误的更正。

  殷切希望同学在使用过程中提出宝贵意见和建议。

                                                                  张祖德

                                                             2005年4月于科大


前      言

 

    这本《无机化学习题》是经过多届大学一年级学生试用的基础上,经过修改、充实而成的。通过教学实践,我们认为在课本的基础上,要有一本范围较广泛、难度较大的习题集,来引导学生刻苦钻研,发挥学习的主观能动性,培养学生的逻辑思维能力,从而使学生对无机化学的基本理论和基础知识能更深刻、更全面、更灵活地掌握,提高分析问题和解决问题的能力,为其它化学学科的学习打下扎实的基础。

    本习题集的主要参考书有:

 Inorganic Chemistry                   (R. B. Heslop)

 Chem One                           (J. Wasew, etc)

 Chemistry Problems                   (sec. edition) (M. H. seenko)

 General Chemistry                     (R. H. Petrucei)

 Chemistry                            (L. & P. Pauling)

 General College Chemistry              (5th edition) (L. W. reenan)

 General Chemistry                     (J. E. Brading)

 Modern Inorganic Chemistry             (G. F. Liptrot)

 《普通化学原理》                       (北京大学化学系)

 《奥林匹克化学竞赛辅导》                (安徽教育出版社)

 《无机化学──要点、例题、习题》        (中国科技大学出版社)

  (中科院考研指定参考书)

 

    本习题集一定存在不少缺点,欢迎随时批评指正。

 

 

                                                        编者

                                                      2001年7月


     

再版前言                                                   Ⅰ 前言                                                       

  

  第一章    气体、液体和溶液的性质 ························································ 1

     第二章    化学热力学基础及化学平衡 ···················································· 6

     第三章    化学动力学基础 ······································································ 16

     第四章    电离平衡 ·················································································· 21

     第五章    沉淀平衡 ·················································································· 26

     第六章    氧化—还原反应·电化学 ······················································ 31

     第七章    原子结构和元素周期表 ·························································· 39

     第八章    化学键和分子、晶体结构 ······················································ 44

     第九章    稀有气体 ·················································································· 51

     第十章    碱金属与碱土金属 ·································································· 52

     第十一章  卤素 ·························································································· 55

     第十二章  氧族元素 ·················································································· 58

     第十三章  氮族元素 ·················································································· 61

     第十四章  碳族元素 ·················································································· 65

     第十五章  硼族元素 ·················································································· 67

     第十六章  配合物 ······················································································ 69

     第十七章  铜锌分族 ·················································································· 75

     第十八章  过渡元素(I ········································································· 79

     第十九章  过渡元素(II ········································································ 87

     第二十章  镧系、锕系元素和核化学 ······················································ 90

 

Study Questions

     Chapter 1  The Behavior of Gases, Liquids and Solutins······························92

      Chapter 2  The Basic Chemical Thermodynamics and Chemical Equilibia················94

     Chapter 3  The Basic Chemical Kinetics·······················································99

     Chapter 4  Equilibia of Acids and Bases·····················································102

     Chapter 5  Ionic Equilibia in Aqueous System············································105

     Chapter 6  The Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Electrochemistry·······108

     Chapter 7  The Atomic Structure·································································111

     Chapter 8  The Chemical Bond and Molecular Structures··························113

     Chapter 9  Group VIII s and p Elements·····················································119

     Chapter 10  Group I and II s Elements························································121

     Chapter 11  Group VII p Elements····························································· 124

     Chapter 12  Group VI p Elements······························································ 127

     Chapter 13  Group V p Elements································································130

     Chapter 14  Group IV p Elements·······························································133

     Chapter 15  Group III p Elements·······························································136

     Chapter 16  The Coordination Compounds················································138

     Chapter 17  The Transition Elements························································· 141

     Chapter 18  The Elements of the First Transition Series ··························· 144

     Chapter 19  The Elements of the Second Transition Series······················· 146

     Chapter 20  Scandium, Yttrium, the Lanthanides and the Actinides ········· 148

  

   附录  I-1  SI单位制的词头··································································· 150

      I-2  一些非推荐单位、导出单位与SI单位的换算 ···························· 150

      II   一些常用的物理化学常数 ······························································ 151

      III  不同摄氏温度t下水的蒸气压p ······················································152

      IV  常见物质的DfH өmDfG өmS өm ···················································153

      V   弱酸、弱碱的电离平衡常数K ·······················································159

      VI  常见难溶电解质的溶度积常数Ksp(298K) ····································· 160

      VII-1 酸性溶液中的标准电极电势φ ө(298K) ··········································· 161

      VII-2 碱性溶液中的标准电极电势φ ө(298K) ··········································· 163

      VIII  常见配(络)合离子的稳定常数K ·········································165

      IX   常见溶剂的KbKf ·······································································166

      X   常见化学键的键焓(298K, p ө ·················································· 166

      XI  在标准状况下,一些有机物的燃烧热 ···········································167

      XII  无机化合物的命名规则(英文) ·················································168

 




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